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How To How To Maximize The Safety Of Advanced Battery Systems Something For Small Businesses

March 20, 2020

How To How To Maximize The Safety Of Advanced Battery Systems Something For Small Businesses

 

In advanced battery systems, the quality of the power electronics components determines the quality, functionality, and reliability of the final product. Emphasis is placed on the use of wideband gap semiconductors and improved power topologies in the latest battery power management and charging systems. In advanced electronics, if the safety system does not operate quickly and reliably, the entire battery system can suffer a catastrophic failure that can seriously affect the product and its users.

 

The need for improved energy storage systems

 

Almost every advanced application space today requires a next-generation battery system. Smart grid energy systems require more storage, such as advanced electric cars, and these requirements are closely related. Each space has its own needs, but safe, reliable, and economical energy storage is its core requirement.

 

In critical life areas such as automotive safety, the importance of having an automatic safety subsystem is vital. The battery system of the new energy vehicle is equivalent to the fuel tank of the fuel car because the storage of energy needs to be safe. There is a lot of power in modern batteries, and a catastrophic failure would certainly involve thermal runaway (fire). The higher the publicity on the light of new energy vehicles, the more attention can be drawn to this danger, which is why safety issues should be addressed to avoid the adverse effects caused by public new energy vehicles.

 

In advanced battery systems, higher battery density requires appropriate safety protocols and equipment, as power levels are very challenging in managing short-circuit problems. To build a robust and safe method that helps ensure reliability over a given vehicle lifetime, manufacturers must integrate high-performance components into their designs.

 

The function of fuse and contactor

 

A fuse or similar device is a necessary circuit protection part that can protect the system by disconnecting the circuit under certain conditions. There are many types of fuses, but the main component of each wire is an engineering wire, usually metal, which is evaluated for failure (melting) in a controlled manner in the event of a temperature increase due to a short circuit. This disruptive protection ensures the safety of the course by completely cutting off the power supply.

 

However, this short-circuit has some disadvantages, the most prominent being that the power supply circuit under load does not necessarily have constant current. In designs requiring high power pulses, a wide range of currents encourages the use of higher current fuses, which can avoid causing unnecessary trips, but this makes the system more susceptible to overheating and thermal problems. This and irreversibility of fuses, has led to the increasing use of electromechanical safety devices, such as circuit breakers, which can because they do not rely on the functionality of destructive components.

 

A contactor is another electromechanical protection device, but it differs from a circuit breaker in that the contractor does not interrupt the circuit. A contactor is a device designed to be connected directly to a high-current load and operated by external control with a high-power switch. In situations requiring high skill, the power connector can be a circuit reset and preferred in the presence of high current levels. Although similar in operation to relays, contactors differ in robustness and in the usable function of controlling and suppressing the arc produced by switching.

 

In terms of battery systems, high-voltage contactors provide safe circuit continuity for hybrid and new energy vehicles, charging systems, and high-power industrial applications. These types of contractors can connect and reconnect circuits quickly and safely, managing arc and current situations. For example, in new energy vehicles, ordinarily open contacts securely connect the battery pack to the system and disconnect when the car is not in use.

 

 

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Faster and more accurate solutions

 

A variety of circuit protection solutions can disconnect circuits faster than fuses and are closer to normal operating conditions without causing tripping, resulting in less damage than using a hot fuse.

 
The device is available in passive and passive/active combinations, using an electric magnetic field and a lion's magnetic force to trigger the opening device. The picture below shows how the GigaFuse works. The blue line represents the trigger threshold, which disconnects the circuit faster than the fuse, and is closer to the required operating conditions. The path of the trigger threshold can be adjusted according to the structure of the circuit tripping device.
 
A fuse that produces a small amount of low temperature during operation is not affected by the thermal aging and associated interference tripping caused by the heat/cold cycle in the circuit. Over time, the temperature cycle causes the metal in the fuse to become brittle, reducing the physical integrity of the connection and shortening the operating life. Engineers should clean wicks quickly and continuously at all temperatures. These features allow end users to design secure circuits while reducing performance requirements for contactors.
 
Correct selection of fuse can also improve the performance of contractors in the circuit. A contactor paired with the wrong fuse can prevent the wick from working. When the contactor suspended, it begins to consume some of the energy that can be used to trigger a fuse, which loads a current on the contactor. The overload contactor prevents the wick from "seeing" a short circuit, which can lead to a catastrophic failure.
 
In high-power systems, the ability of electrical protection devices to solve circuit safety problems is not limited to advanced batteries. In many applications, from motion control to other energy generation, the efficiency, thermal performance, and speed of such a component can be benefited. This quick-acting type of hermetic electromechanical device is beneficial for thermal aging or nuisance tripping that is problematic.
 
Advanced battery systems require advanced protection solutions, from improving battery safety and performance to encouraging greater acceptance in the EV market. High current levels and high power densities in next-generation battery systems also require high-performance safety components.